Deism – Physicotheology and Atheism


Session n°3a of April 4, 2024 – English translation – original Dutch

Location: Mezzaverde in Belgium

Visitor: Malvantra Melchizedek

Received by Wivine


I heard about deism on a TV program a few months ago; the definition being someone who believes in God but does not adhere to an institutionalized dogmatic religion. I thought, well, that might apply to me.

Apparently, I was satisfied too quickly because this word ‘Deism’ continued to haunt my thoughts until I realized that I needed to explore it further.

Furthermore, I was left with questions for many years without satisfactory answers:

- why are there so many secret societies, the best known of which is Freemasonry? Why this secrecy?

- Why has science separated itself so strongly from religion or from the recognition of the existence of God? Is it true that God created science to then superimpose His existence and His teachings on it?

So I started searching the internet in different languages. I found lots of articles that I had to translate first to understand. Which takes time. To finally keep only the articles which can contribute or constitute a basis for illustrating the conveying message of Malvantra Melchizedek. As the session became too long and it still had to be translated into two languages, I am editing it in two parts.

Session 3 - Part 1: illustrates the history of the origins of deism, atheism and other –‘isms’ where I found/received many answers intuitively.

Session 3 - Part 2 is Malvantra's message which completes and clarifies the spiritual view of the existence of God and the palpable or non-palpable presence of God in the universes, as well as the purpose or plan of God regarding creation and the development of human souls.



Deism, an unorthodox religious attitude that found expression among a group of English writers beginning with

-      Edward Herbert (later 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury) in the first half of the 17th century and ending with

-      Henry St. John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, in the middle of the 18th century.

These writers subsequently inspired a similar religious attitude in Europe during the second half of the 18th century and in the colonial United States of America in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

In general, Deism refers to what can be called natural religion, the

-      acceptance of a certain body of religious knowledge that is inborn in every person or that can be acquired by the use of reason and

-      the rejection of religious knowledge when it is acquired through either revelation or the teaching of any church.

Nature and scope

Though an initial use of the term occurred in 16th-century France, the later appearance of the doctrine on the Continent was stimulated by the translation and adaptation of the English models. The high point of Deist thought occurred in England from about 1689 through 1742, during a period when, despite widespread counterattacks from the established Church of England, there was relative freedom of religious expression following upon the Glorious Revolution that ended the rule of James II and brought William III and Mary II to the throne.

Deism took deep root in 18th-century Germany after it had ceased to be a vital subject of controversy in England.

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the word Deism was used by some theologians in contradistinction to theism, the belief in an immanent God who actively intervenes in the affairs of men. In this sense, Deism was represented as the view of those who reduced the role of God to a mere act of creation in accordance with rational laws discoverable by man and held that, after the original act, God virtually withdrew and refrained from interfering in the processes of nature and the ways of man.

So stark an interpretation of the relations of God and man, however, was accepted by very few Deists during the flowering of the doctrine, though their religious antagonists often attempted to force them into this difficult position. Historically, a distinction between theism and Deism has never had wide currency in European thought. As an example, when encyclopaedist Denis Diderot, in France, translated into French the works of Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd earl of Shaftesbury, one of the important English Deists, he often rendered “Deism” as théisme.

The historical Deists

The English Deists

In 1754–56, when the Deist controversy had passed its peak, John Leland, an opponent, wrote a historical and critical compendium of Deist thought, A View of the Principal Deistical Writers that Have Appeared in England in the Last and Present Century; with Observations upon Them, and Some Account of the Answers that Have Been Published Against Them.

This work, which began with Lord Herbert of Cherbury and moved through the political philosopher Thomas Hobbes, Charles Blount, the earl of Shaftesbury (Cooper), Anthony Collins, Thomas Woolston, Matthew Tindal, Thomas Morgan, Thomas Chubb, and Viscount Bolingbroke, fixed the canon of who should be included among the Deist writers.

In subsequent works, Hobbes usually has been dropped from the list and John Toland included, though he was closer to pantheism than most of the other Deists were. Herbert was not known as a Deist in his day, but Blount and the rest who figured in Leland’s book would have accepted the term Deist as an appropriate designation for their religious position.

Simultaneously, it became an adjective of opprobrium in the vocabulary of their opponents. Bishop Edward Stillingfleet’s Letter to a Deist (1677) is an early example of the orthodox use of the epithet.

In Lord Herbert’s treatises five religious ideas were recognized as God-given and innate in the mind of man from the beginning of time:

-      the belief in a supreme being,

-      in the need for his worship,

-      in the pursuit of a pious and virtuous life as the most desirable form of worship,

-       in the need of repentance for sins, and

-      in rewards and punishments in the next world.

These fundamental religious beliefs, Herbert held, had been the possession of the first man, and they were basic to all the worthy positive institutionalized religions of later times. Thus,

-      differences among sects and cults all over the world were usually benign, mere modifications of universally accepted truths;

-      they were corruptions only when they led to barbarous practices such as the immolation of human victims and the slaughter of religious rivals.

In England at the turn of the 17th century this general religious attitude assumed a more militant form, particularly in the works of Toland, Shaftesbury, Tindal, Woolston, and Collins. Though the Deists differed among themselves and there is no single work that can be designated as the quintessential expression of Deism, they joined in attacking both the existing orthodox church establishment and the wild manifestations of the dissenters.

The tone of these writers was often earthy and pungent, but their Deist ideal was sober natural religion without the trappings of Roman Catholicism and the High Church in England and free from the passionate excesses of Protestant fanatics. In Toland there is great emphasis on the rational element in natural religion; in Shaftesbury more worth is ascribed to the emotive quality of religious experience when it is directed into salutary channels.

All are agreed in denouncing every kind of religious intolerance because the core of the various religions is identical.

In general, there is a negative evaluation of religious institutions and the priestly corps who direct them. Simple primitive monotheism was practiced by early men without temples, churches, and synagogues, and modern men could readily dispense with religious pomp and ceremony. The more elaborate and exclusive the religious establishment, the more it came under attack. A substantial portion of Deist literature was devoted to the description of the noxious practices of all religions in all times, and the similarities of pagan and Roman Catholic rites were emphasized.

The Deists who presented purely rationalist proofs for the existence of God, usually variations on the argument from the design or order of the universe, were able to derive support from the vision of the lawful physical world that Sir Isaac Newton had delineated. Indeed, in the 18th century, there was a tendency to convert Newton into a matter-of-fact Deist—a transmutation that was contrary to the spirit of both his philosophical and his theological writings.

When Deists were faced with the problem of how man had lapsed from the pure principles of his first forebears into the multiplicity of religious superstitions and crimes committed in the name of God, they ventured a number of conjectures. They surmised that men had fallen into error because of the

-       inherent weakness of human nature;

-      or they subscribed to the idea that a conspiracy of priests had intentionally deceived men with a “rout of ceremonials” in order to maintain power over them.

The role of Christianity in the universal history of religion became problematic.

For many religious Deists the teachings of Jesus Christ were not essentially novel but were, in reality, as old as creation, a republication of primitive monotheism. Religious leaders had arisen among many peoples—Socrates, Buddha, Muhammad—and their mission had been to effect a restoration of the simple religious faith of early men.

Some writers, while admitting the similarity of Jesus’ message to that of other religious teachers, tended to preserve the unique position of Christianity as a divine revelation. It was possible to believe even in prophetic revelation and still remain a Deist, for revelation could be considered as a natural historical occurrence consonant with the definition of the goodness of God.

The more extreme Deists, of course, could not countenance this degree of divine intervention in the affairs of men.

Natural religion was sufficient and certain; the tenets of all positive religions contained extraneous, even impure elements. Deists accepted the moral teachings of the Bible without any commitment to the historical reality of the reports of miracles.

Most Deist argumentation attacking the literal interpretation of Scripture as divine revelation leaned upon the findings of 17th-century biblical criticism. Woolston, who resorted to an allegorical interpretation of the whole of the New Testament, was an extremist even among the more audacious Deists. Tindal was perhaps the most moderate of the group. Toland was violent; his denial of all mystery in religion was supported by analogies among Christian, Judaic, and pagan esoteric religious practices, equally condemned as the machinations of priests.

The Deists were particularly vehement against any manifestation of religious fanaticism and enthusiasm.

In this respect Shaftesbury’s Letter Concerning Enthusiasm (1708) was probably the crucial document in propagating their ideas. Revolted by the Puritan fanatics of the previous century and by the wild hysteria of a group of French exiles prophesying in London in 1707, Shaftesbury denounced all forms of religious extravagance as perversions of “true” religion. These false prophets were directing religious emotions, benign in themselves, into the wrong channels. Any description of God that depicted his impending vengeance, vindictiveness, jealousy, and destructive cruelty was blasphemous. Because sound religion could find expression only among healthy men, the argument was common in Deist literature that the preaching of extreme asceticism, the practice of self-torture, and the violence of religious persecutions were all evidence of psychological illness and had nothing to do with authentic religious sentiment and conduct. The Deist God, ever gentle, loving, and benevolent, intended men to behave toward one another in the same kindly and tolerant fashion.

Deists in other countries

Ideas of this general character were voiced on the Continent at about the same period by such men as Pierre Bayle, a French philosopher famous for his encyclopaedical dictionary, even though he would have rejected the Deist identification. During the heyday of the French Philosophes in the 18th century, the more daring thinkers—Voltaire among them—gloried in the name Deist and declared the kinship of their ideas with those of Rationalist English ecclesiastics, such as Samuel Clarke, who would have repudiated the relationship.

The dividing line between Deism and atheism among the Philosophes was often rather blurred, as is evidenced by Le Rêve de d’Alembert (written 1769; “The Dream of d’Alembert”), which describes a discussion between the two “fathers” of the Encyclopedia: the Deist Jean Le Rond d’Alembert and the atheist Diderot.

Diderot had drawn his inspiration from Shaftesbury, and thus in his early career he was committed to a more emotional Deism. Later in life, however, he shifted to the atheist materialist circle of the baron d’Holbach. When Holbach paraphrased or translated the English Deists, his purpose was frankly atheist; he emphasized those portions of their works that attacked existing religious practices and institutions, neglecting their devotion to natural religion and their adoration of Christ. The Catholic church in 18th-century France did not recognize fine distinctions among heretics. Deist and atheist works were burned in the same bonfires.

English Deism was transmitted to Germany primarily through translations of Shaftesbury, whose influence upon thought was paramount. In a commentary on Shaftesbury published in 1720, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, a Rationalist philosopher and mathematician, accepted the Deist conception of God as an intelligent Creator but refused the contention that a god who metes out punishments is evil. A sampling of other Deist writers was available particularly through the German rendering of Leland’s work in 1755 and 1756.

H.S. Reimarus, author of many philosophical works, maintained in his Apologie oder Schutzschrift für die vernünftigen Verehrer Gottes (“Defense for the Rational Adorers of God”) that the human mind by itself without revelation was capable of reaching a perfect religion.

Reimarus did not dare to publish the book during his lifetime, but it was published in 1774–78 by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, one of the great seminal minds in German literature. According to Lessing, common man, uninstructed and unreflecting, will not reach a perfect knowledge of natural religion; he will forget or ignore it.

Thus, the several positive religions can help men achieve more complete awareness of the perfect religion than could ever be attained by any individual mind. Lessing’s Nathan der Weise (1779; “Nathan the Sage”) was noteworthy for the introduction of the Deist spirit of religion into the drama; in the famous parable of the three rings, the major monotheistic religions were presented as equally true in the eyes of God.

Although Lessing’s rational Deism was the object of violent attack on the part of Pietist writers and more mystical thinkers, it influenced such men as Moses Mendelssohn, a German Jewish philosopher who applied Deism to the Jewish faith.

Immanuel Kant, the most important figure in 18th-century German philosophy, stressed the moral element in natural religion when he wrote that moral principles are not the result of any revelation but rather originate from the very structure of man’s reason.

English Deists, however, continued to influence German Deism. Witnesses attest that virtually the whole officer corps of Frederick the Great was “infected” with Deism and that Collins and Tindal were favourite reading in the army.

By the end of the 18th century, Deism had become a dominant religious attitude among intellectual and upper-class Americans.

Benjamin Franklin, the great sage of the colonies and then of the new republic, summarized in a letter to Ezra Stiles, president of Yale College, a personal creed that almost literally reproduced Herbert’s five fundamental beliefs.

The second and third presidents of the United States also held Deistic convictions, as is amply evidenced in their correspondence. “The ten commandments and the sermon on the mount contain my religion,” John Adams wrote to Thomas Jefferson in 1816.

Influence of Deism since the early 20th century

Certain philosophical and religious movements starting in the 20th century have been characterized as Deist in nature, mainly in the United States. For example, many Unitarian Universalist congregations have Deist members and even Deist discussion groups and fellowships. Further, such modern variants as “pandeism,” which attempted to unite aspects of Deism with pantheism, held that through the act of creation God became the universe. There is thus no theological need to posit any special relationship between God and creation; rather, God is the universe and not a transcendent entity that created and subsequently governs it.

The American logician and process philosopher Charles Hartshorne considered Deism, pandeism, and pantheism as reasonable doctrines of the nature of God; however, he rejected all of these in favour of panentheism, the belief that God is present in the universe while being greater than it.

The English philosopher Anthony Flew also stirred controversy when he publicly abandoned his personal conviction in atheism in favor of what he called a “weak” form of Deism that asserted God’s existence yet eschewed positions on such traditional theological matters as God’s relationship with the world or revelation.

{The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica}


Wanted to know God and talk about Him outside of Revelation based on rational proofs of God as well as the visible manifestation of God's power. In Physicotheology, the efficiency and systematic nature of creation have been repeatedly emphasized, as well as the order of the cosmos, based on the laws of nature created by God. The authors continually emphasize how everything works in an orderly, harmonious, planned, and efficient way in nature.

The most important Dutch author on physicotheology of this period was Bernard Nieuwentijt. His most important work is ‘The Right Use of World-Views, Demonstrated to Convince the Impious and Unbelievers (1715)’. In half a century, the work was reprinted seven times and translated into French, English and German.

In physicotheology, this design argument was an important weapon in the fight against atheism, materialism and deism. Based on available knowledge about natural phenomena, the authors wanted to convince the readers of their books of the existence of God and his enduring concern for creation. God was often referred to by terms such as Supreme Administrator, Guardian and Ruler.

They primarily preached the belief that nature is so planned and intentional that nature without God is inconceivable and impossible. Physical theologians were able to reconcile each biblical text in which nature was discussed with the then-current scientific theories about what was discussed in that biblical text. They urged their readers to know the greatness of the Creator by doing their own research into nature.

The physicotheologians' argument was popular in 18th century poetry, edifying literature, and works of natural history. At first this was a theme that mainly concerned people other than theologians, but from around 1730 preachers also began to write on this theme. The work Catechism of Nature (in four parts) by Zutphen preacher Jan Floris Martinet, published in 1777-1779, was important for the education of young people. A sixth edition was published in 1827-1829, while the author also wrote a Small Catechism of Nature for children in 1779, a sixth edition of which was published in 1818. The Small Catechism has been translated into English, French, German and Malay, while the great original work has been published in English and German translations. Both of Martinet's works were extremely popular. Many followed his example and also wrote similar catechisms.

In the second quarter of the 19th century, the usefulness of physicotheology began to lose its appeal. The idea of a consciously created and planned nature was given a further blow later in this century by: Darwin with his principle of natural selection.


Atheism is the absence of belief in one or more gods. The concept has multiple meanings, sometimes overlapping, sometimes exclusive, but this definition gives it scientific utility as an overall concept.


Ideas sometimes considered atheistic were described as early as the Vedic period of ancient India. The Charvaka was a materialist school originally written around 600 BC. and declares that religion is only an invention of priests. Another early form of atheism was the Indian Sankhya system which had a naturalistic view of the world.

Writings from classical antiquity show that among the ancient Greeks it was customary to call someone θεος (atheist) if they did not accept traditional views regarding the gods.

However, defendants like Epicurus never completely denied the existence of gods. Epicurus simply stated that whatever gods are, they do not care about people and therefore do not want to punish them in this or any other life.

The Roman philosopher Cicero claimed in his book De natura deorum that Diagoras of Melos and Theodore of Cyrene were atheists and did not believe in the existence of gods.

In the Roman Empire, it was common to stigmatize religious opponents as atheists: polytheistic (pagan) Romans called Christians (monotheists) and Jews atheists and vice versa, while they denied vehemently being it themselves.

New atheism

In 2004, an atheist movement emerged, since 2006 called new atheism. The movement was shaped notably by the books of Richard Dawkins, Christopher Hitchens, Sam Harris and Daniel Dennett.

According to Victor J. Stenger, traditional atheism differs from new atheism in this sense

- traditional atheism is conciliatory towards theism,

- new atheism adopts a hostile attitude towards it.

Ideological atheism

Certain ideological movements have been associated with atheism, as is the case of:

- socialism,

- anarchism

- communism.

After the Second World War, this was no longer the case for the social democratic movement that emerged from socialism.

In 1967, Albania's communist regime, led by dictator Enver Hoxha, declared the country atheist. This already happened in Cuba under Fidel Castro in 1959.

Atheist religions

There are also atheistic religions, such as certain forms of Buddhism. Anatta - a teaching of Buddhism, which excludes the existence of separate gods, spirits or human souls, or at least calls them an illusion (maya).

Atheism is not necessarily in contradiction with religiosity: see for example Leo Apostel, Klaas Hendrikse and Rik Pinxten, on atheist religiosity and religious humanism. The question is therefore justified as to whether these are true religions and should they not be better described as philosophies of life.

Religious response to atheism

A 1922 cartoon by E.J. Pace's describing that Christians who embrace modernism are on a downward staircase that leads to atheism.

Religious responses to atheism vary widely.

For example, in some Islamic countries, apostasy is punishable by death. Such strong negative reactions have also occurred in Christianity in the past.

Catholic response to atheism

Shortly after the Second Vatican Council, Pope Paul VI created the Pontifical Council for Dialogue with Nonbelievers. The purpose of this council was to study atheism and achieve meaningful dialogue with atheist and humanist organizations. This papal council later became the Pontifical Council for Culture.

The Prefect of this Council, Cardinal Gianfranco Ravasi, organized several meetings between believers and non-believers. An exhibition was also organized on his initiative in the Vatican Museums where Christian and atheist artists exhibited side by side.

Pope Francis emphasized during a general audience in May 2013 that Christ died for all. He literally added that atheists and Christians are on the same page if they both do the right thing. These statements were greeted with enthusiasm by atheist organizations.

Atheism and belief in the scientific community.

‘La Recherche’, citing the American journal Science, reported in 1997 the positions of a certain number of believing scientists.

Astrophysicist George Smoot is said to have suggested that the cosmic background radiation, one of the pieces of evidence supporting the "Big Bang" theory, is the "signature of God."

Nobel Prize winner in physics Charles Townes, co-inventor of the laser, prays every day.

The very active Francis Collins, co-discoverer of the cystic fibrosis gene, defines himself as a convinced Christian. He sees no contradiction between the Darwinian theory of evolution and religion: “Why wouldn't God have used the mechanism of evolution to create? ".

The Belgian Christian de Duve, Nobel Prize winner in biology in 1974, states: “Many of my scientific friends are violently atheists, but atheism is neither supported nor founded by science”.

Another Nobel, the evolutionist Joshua Lederberg said: “Nothing invalidates the divine. It is indisputable that the scientific quest is driven by a religious motive.

Physicist John Polkinghorne was ordained an Anglican priest. For him: “God can act in subtle ways, inaccessible to physics”.

However, statistics show that disbelief is more widespread among scientists than in the rest of the population.

In 1916, psychologist James Leuba estimated that

-      40% of American scientists believed in the existence of a personal God,

-       and 50% in immortality.

In 1997, according to ‘La Recherche’, which is based on studies by two American researchers. Only

- 7% of American scientists elected to the National Academy of Sciences were believers,

- 20% were agnostic and

-  73% could be classified as atheists.

There are therefore far fewer believers among scientists than in the general American population, in which

-76.5% say they are believers and

-7.1% declare themselves to be atheists or agnostics.